|Corr I 406
Performance/Revelle/Resource theory/cognitive psychology/Matthews: Humphreys-Revelle Theory: Humphreys and Revelle (1984)(1) described separate resource pools for sustained information transfer (SIT; similar to attention) and for short-term memory (STM). Arousal, in their model, leads to increased availability of SIT resources, but loss of STM resources. Directing effort to the task is distinct from arousal, and influences SIT resources only. Traits that influence arousal and effort will then have differing effects on qualitatively different tasks, overcoming a major weakness of traditional arousal theory.
personality traits - (arousal or effort) - resource availability > performance
Corr I 407/408
VsRevelle/VsHumphreys: see >VsResource Theory.
1) The Humphreys and Revelle (1984)(1) theory attributes Extraversion x arousal interactions to variations in resource availability. Hence, these interactive effects should be found primarily with those more demanding tasks that are highly resource-limited, rather than simple tasks requiring little attentional capacity. A review of the evidence (Matthews 1997)(2) failed to confirm this prediction. In fact, interactive effects of Extraversion and arousal on performance were most reliable with rather simple, routine encoding tasks, as opposed to demanding, resource-limited tasks (Matthews 1997(2); Matthews and Harley 1993(3)). Alternative mechanisms such as automatic activation processes may provide a better explanation, as explored in a study that modelled the effect using neural nets (Matthews and Harley 1993)(3). >VsResource Theory.
1. Humphreys, M. S. and Revelle, W. 1984. Personality, motivation and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing, Psychological Review 91: 153–84
2. Matthews, G. 1997. Extraversion, emotion and performance: a cognitive-adaptive model, in G. Matthews (ed.), Cognitive science perspectives on personality and emotion, pp. 339–442. Amsterdam: Elsevier
3. Matthews, G. and Harley, T. A. 1993. Effects of Extraversion and self-report arousal on semantic priming: a connectionist approach, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65: 735–56
Gerald Matthews, „ Personality and performance: cognitive processes and models“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press_____________ Zeichenerklärung: Römische Ziffern geben die Quelle an, arabische Ziffern die Seitenzahl. Die entsprechenden Titel sind rechts unter Metadaten angegeben. ((s)…): Kommentar des Einsenders.
Philip J. Corr
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009